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A self-study reference and practice book for intermediate students 11 страничка


.

stealing <- denied

verb + to ...

* They decided to steal the money.

* I want to go out.

Often we use to... for an action that follows the first verb:

decided -> to steal want -> to go

This difference is often helpful (see Section B) but does not explain all uses of ~ing and to...

B. Some verbs can be followed by ~ing or to... with a difference of meaning:

remember

I remember doing something = I did it and now I remember this.

You remember doing something after you have done it:

* I'm absolutely sure I locked the door. I clearly remember locking it. (= I locked it, and now I remember this)

* He could remember driving along the road just before the accident happened, but he couldn't remember the accident itself.

I remembered to do something = I remembered that I had to do it, and so I did it.

You remember to do something before you do it:

* I remembered to lock the door when I left but I forgot to shut the windows. (= I remembered that I had to lock the door and so I locked it)

* Please remember to post the letter. (= don't forget to post it)

regret

I regret doing something = I did it and now I'm sorry about it:

* I now regret saying what I said. I shouldn't have said it.

I regret to say/to tell you/to inform you = I'm sorry that I have to say (etc.):

* (from a formal letter) We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you the job.

go on

Go on doing something = continue doing the same thing:

* The minister went on talking for two hours.

* We must change our ways. We can't go on living like this.

Go on to do something = do or say something new:

* After discussing the economy, the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy.

C. begin start intend continue bother

These verbs can be followed by ~ing or to... with little or no difference in meaning. So you can say:

* It has started raining. or It has started to rain.

* John intends buying a house. or John intends to buy ...

* Don't bother locking the door. or Don't bother to lock ...

But normally we do not use ~ing after ~ing:

* It's starting to rain. (not 'it's starting raining')

@p111

EXERCISES

55.1 Put the verb into the correct form, ~ing or to... . Sometimes either form is possible.

1. They denied _stealing_ the money. (steal)

2. I don't enjoy --- very much. (drive)

3. I don't want --- out tonight. I'm too tired. (go)

4. I can't afford --- out tonight. I haven't got enough money. (go)

5. Has it stopped --- yet? (rain)

6. Can you remind me --- some coffee when we go out? (buy)

7. Why do you keep --- me questions? Can't you leave me alone? (ask)

8. Please stop --- me questions! (ask)

9. I refuse --- any more questions. (answer)

10. One of the boys admitted --- the window. (break)

11. The boy's father promised --- for the window to be repaired. (pay)

12. Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. She didn't answer the phone; she just carried on ---. (eat)

13. 'How did the thief get into the house?' 'I forgot --- the window.' (shut)

14. I've enjoyed --- you. (meet) I hope --- you again soon. (see)

15. The baby began --- in the middle of the night. (cry)

16. Julia has been ill but now she's beginning --- better. (get)

55.2 Here is some information about Tom when be was a child.



1. He was in hospital when he was four.

2. He went to Paris when he was eight.

3. Once he fell into a river.

4. He cried on his first day at school.

5. He said he wanted to be a doctor.

6. Once he was bitten by a dog.

He can still remember 1, 2 and 4. But be can't remember 3, S and 6. Write sentences beginning He can remember ... or He can't remember...

1. He can remember being in hospital when he was four.

2. ---

3. ---

4. ---

5. ---

6. ---

55.3 Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form, ~ing or to ...

1. a. Please remember to lock the door when you go out.

b. A: You lent me some money a few months ago.

B: Did I? Are you sure? I don't remember --- you any money.

c. A: Did you remember --- your sister?

B: Oh no, I completely forgot. I'll phone her tomorrow.

d. When you see Mandy, remember --- her my regards, won't you?

e. Someone must have taken my bag. I clearly remember --- it by the window and now it has gone.

2. a. I believe that what I said was fair. I don't regret --- it.

b. (after a driving test) I regret --- that you have failed the test.

3. a. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. A few years later he went on --- manager of the company.

b. I can't go on --- here any more. I want a different job.

c. When I came into the room, Liz was reading a newspaper. She looked up and said hello to me, and then went on --- her newspaper.

@p112

UNIT 56. Verb + ~ing or to ... (2) (try/need/help)

A. Try to ... and try ~ing

Try to do = attempt to do, make an effort to do:

* I was very tired. I tried to keep my eyes open but I couldn't.

* Please try to be quiet when you come home. Everyone will be asleep.

Try also means 'do something as an experiment or test'. For example:

* These cakes are delicious. You must try one. (= you must have one to see if you like it)

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* We couldn't find anywhere to stay. We tried every hotel in the town but they were

all full. (= we went to every hotel to see if they had a room)

If try (with this meaning) is followed by a verb, we say try ~ing:

* A: The photocopier doesn't seem to be working.

B: Try pressing the green button. (= press the green button - perhaps this will help to solve the problem)

Compare:

* I tried to move the table but it was too heavy. (so I couldn't move it)

* I didn't like the way the furniture was arranged, so I tried moving the table to the other side of the room. But it still didn't look right, so I moved it back again.

B. Need to ... and need ~ing

I need to do something = it is necessary for me to do it:

* I need to take more exercise.

* He needs to work harder if he wants to make progress.

* I don't need to come to the meeting, do I?

Something needs doing = something needs to be done:

* The batteries in the radio need changing. (= they need to be changed)

* Do you think my jacket needs cleaning? (= ... needs to be cleaned)

* It's a difficult problem. It needs thinking about very carefully. (= it needs to be thought about)

C. Help and can't help

You can say 'help to do' or 'help do' (infinitive with or without to):

* Everybody helped to clean up after the party. or Everybody helped clean up ...

* Can you help me to move this table? or Can you help me move ...

There is also an expression 'can't/couldn't help doing something'. 'I can't help doing something' = I can't stop myself from doing it:

* I don't like him but he has a lot of problems. I can't help feeling sorry for him.

* She tried to be serious but she couldn't help laughing. (= she couldn't stop herself from laughing)

* I'm sorry I'm so nervous. I can't help it. (= I can't help being nervous)

@p113

EXERCISES

56.1 Make helpful suggestions. Each time write a sentence using try + one of the following

suggestions: phone him at work move the aerial change the batteries turn it the other way take an aspirin

1. The radio isn't working. I wonder what's wrong with it.

_Have you tried changing the batteries?_

2. I can't open the door. The key won't turn.

Try ---

3. The TV picture isn't very good. What can I do about it?

Have you ---

4. I can't contact Fred. He's not at home. What shall I do?

Why don't you ---

5. I've got a terrible headache. I wish it would go.

Have you ---

56.2 For each picture write a sentence with need(s) + one of the following verbs:

clean cut empty redecorate tighten

1. Her jacket is dirty. It needs cleaning.

2. The grass is very long. It ---

3. The room isn't very nice ---

4. The screws arc loose ---

5. The bin is full ---

56.3 Put the verb into the correct form, ~ing or to... .

1. a. I was very tired. I tried to keep (keep) my eyes open but I couldn't.

b. I rang the doorbell but there was no answer. Then I tried --- (knock) on the door, but there was still no answer.

c. We tried --- (put) the fire out but we were unsuccessful. We had to call the fire brigade.

d. Sue needed to borrow some money. She tried --- (ask) Gerry but he was short of money too.

e. I tried --- (reach) the shelf but I wasn't tall enough.

f. Please leave me alone. I'm trying --- (concentrate).

2. a. I need a change. I need --- (go) away for a while.

b. She isn't able to look after herself. She needs --- (look) after.

c. The windows are dirty. They need --- (clean).

d. Why are you leaving now? You don't need --- (go) yet, do you?

e. You don't need --- (iron) that shirt. It doesn't need --- (iron).

3. a. They were talking very loudly. I couldn't help --- (overhear) them.

b. Can you help me --- (get) the dinner ready?

c. He looks so funny. Whenever I see him, I can't help --- (smile).

d. The fine weather helped --- (make) it a very enjoyable holiday.

@p114

UNIT 57. Verb + ~ing or to... (3) (like/would like etc.)

A. like love hate can't bear enjoy dislike mind can't stand

These verbs and expressions all mean 'like' or 'not like'. They are often followed by ~ing:

* Ann hates flying.

* Why do you dislike living here?

* I don't like people shouting at me. (= I don't like being shouted at.)

After love, hate and can't bear, you can also use to ... So you can say:

* I love meeting people. or I love to meet people.

* She can't bear being alone. or She can't bear to be alone.

But after enjoy/dislike/mind/can't stand, we use only ~ing (not 'to ...'):

* I enjoy being alone. (not 'I enjoy to be')

* Tom doesn't mind working at night. (not 'mind to work')

B. Like

You can say 'I like doing something' or 'I like to do something'. Often it doesn't matter which you use, so you can say:

* I like getting up early. or I like to get up early.

In British English, there is sometimes a difference between 'I like doing' and 'I like to do'.

'I like doing something' means 'I enjoy it':

* Do you like cooking? (= do you enjoy it?)

* I like living here. (= I enjoy it)

'I like to do something' means 'I think it is good or right +() do it':

* I like to clean the kitchen as often as possible. (This doesn't mean that I enjoy it; it means that I think it is a good thing to do.)

* Mary likes people to be on time.

C. Would like/would love/would hate/would prefer are usually followed by to ... (infinitive):

* I would like to be rich.

* Would you like to come to dinner on Friday?

* I'd love (= would love) to be able to travel round the world.

* Would you prefer to have dinner now or later?

Compare I like and I would like:

* I like playing/to play tennis. (= I enjoy it in general)

* I would like to play tennis today. (= I want to play today)

Note that would mind is followed by ~ing (not to ...)

* Would you mind closing the door, please?

D. You can also say 'I would like to have done something' (= I regret now that I didn't or couldn't do something):

* It's a pity we didn't see Val when we were in London. I would like to have seen her again.

* We'd like to have gone on holiday but we didn't have enough money.

You can use the same structure after would love/would hate/would prefer:

* Poor old Tom! I would hate to have been in his position.

* I'd love to have gone to the party but it was impossible.

@p115

EXERCISES

57.1 Complete the sentences with likes... or doesn't like... + one of the following (in the correct form):

be kept waiting do nothing drive fly solve mysteries take photographs take risks work in the open air

1. George is a detective. He enjoys his work. He _likes solving mysteries._

2. Ann very rarely travels by plane. She _doesn't like flying._

3. Rose always carries her camera with her. She ---

4. Christine doesn't use her car very often. She ---

5. Dave is a gardener. He likes his job. He ---

6. Jennifer is a very cautious person. She ---

7. Ted is extremely lazy. He ---

8. Helen is very impatient. She ---

57.2 Write sentences about yourself. Say whether you like or don't like these activities. Choose one of these verbs for each sentence: (don't) like love hate enjoy don't mind

1. (flying) _I don't like flying._

2. (playing cards)

3. (doing the ironing)

4. (going to museums)

5. (lying on the beach all day)

57.3 How would you feel about doing these jobs? In your sentences use one of these:

I'd like/I wouldn't like I'd love I'd hate I wouldn't mind

1. (a teacher) _I wouldn't like to be a teacher._

2. (a dentist)

3. (a hairdresser)

4. (an airline pilot)

5. (a tourist guide)

57.4 Put in a suitable verb in the correct form, ~ing or to ... Sometimes either form is possible.

1. It's nice to be with other people but sometimes I enjoy _being_ alone.

2. I'm not quite ready yet. Do you mind --- a little longer?

3. When I was a child, I hated --- to bed early.

4. I don't enjoy --- letters. I can never think what to write.

5. I need a new job. I can't stand --- here any more.

6. I would love --- to your wedding but I'm afraid it isn't possible.

7. Caroline never wears a hat. She doesn't like --- hats.

8. 'Would you like --- down?' 'No, thanks. I'll stand.'

9. When I have to catch a train, I'm always worried that I'll miss it. So I like --- to the station in plenty of time.

10. Have you got a moment? I'd like --- to you about something.

.57.5 Write sentences like those in Section D. Use the verb in brackets.

1. It's a pity I couldn't go to the wedding. (like)

_I would like to have gone to the wedding._

2. It's a pity I didn't see the programme. (like)

3. I'm glad I didn't lose my watch. (hate)

4. It's a pity I didn't meet Ann. (love)

5. I'm glad I wasn't alone. (not/like)

6. It's a pity I couldn't travel by train. (prefer)

@p116

UNIT 58. Prefer and would rather

A. Prefer to do and prefer doing

You can use 'prefer to (do)' or 'prefer ~ing' to say what you prefer in general:

* I don't like cities. I prefer to live in the country. or I prefer living in the country.

Study the differences in structure after prefer. We say:

I prefer something to something else.

I prefer doing something to doing something else.

but I prefer to do something rather than (do) something else.

* I prefer this coat to the coat you were wearing yesterday.

* I prefer driving to travelling by train.

but * I prefer to drive rather than travel by train.

* Ann prefers to live in the country rather than (live) in a city.

B. Would prefer (I'd prefer...)

We use 'would prefer' to say what somebody wants in a particular situation (not in general):

* 'Would you prefer tea or coffee?' 'Coffee, please.'

We say 'would prefer to do' (not 'doing'):

* 'Shall we go by train?' 'Well, I'd prefer to go by car.' (not 'I'd prefer going')

* I'd prefer to stay at home tonight rather than go to the cinema.

C. Would rather (I'd rather...)

Would rather (do) = would prefer (to do). After would rather we use the infinitive without to.

Compare:

* 'Shall we go by train?' 'I'd prefer to go by car.'

* 'Shall we go by train?' 'I'd rather go by car.' (not 'to go')

* 'Would you rather have tea or coffee?' 'Coffee, please.'

The negative is 'I'd rather not (do something)':

* I'm tired. I'd rather not go out this evening, if you don't mind.

* 'Do you want to go out this evening?' 'I'd rather not.'

Study the structure after would rather:

I'd rather do something than (do) something else.

* I'd rather stay at home tonight than go to the cinema.

D. I'd rather you did something

When you want somebody to do something, you can say 'I'd rather you did something':

* 'Shall I stay here?' 'I'd rather you came with us.'

* 'Shall I tell them the news?' 'No. I'd rather they didn't know.'

* Shall I tell them or would you rather they didn't know?

In this structure we use the past (came, did etc.), but the meaning is present or future, not past.

Compare:

* I'd rather cook the dinner now.

but * I'd rather you cooked the dinner now. (not 'I'd rather you cook')

The negative is 'I'd rather you didn't ...':

* I'd rather you didn't tell anyone what I said.

* 'Do you mind if I smoke?' 'I'd rather you didn't.'

@p117

EXERCISES

58.1 Which do you prefer? Write sentences using 'I prefer (something) to (something else)'. Put the verb into the correct form where necessary.

1. (drive/travel by train) _I prefer driving to travelling by train._

2. (tennis/football) I prefer ---

3. (phone people/write letters) I --- to ---

4. (go to the cinema/watch films on TV) ---

Now rewrite sentences 3 and 4 using the structure 'I prefer (to do something)...'.

5. (1) I prefer to drive rather travel by train.

6. (3) I prefer to ---

7. (4) ---

58.2 Write sentences using I'd prefer ... or I'd rather... + one of the following:

eat at home get a taxi go alone go for a swim listen to some music stand think a out it for a while wait a few minutes wait till later

1. Shall we walk home? (prefer) _I'd prefer to get a taxi._

2. Do you want to eat now? (rather) _I'd rather wait till later._

3. Shall we watch TV? (prefer) ---

4. What about a game of tennis? (rather) ---

5. Shall we leave now? (rather) ---

6. Do you want to go to a restaurant? (prefer) ---

7. I think we should decide now? (rather) ---

8. Would you like to sit down? (rather) ---

9. Do you want me to come with you? (prefer) ---

Now write sentences using than and rather than.

10. (get a taxi/walk home) I'd prefer _to get a taxi rather than walk home._

11. (go for a swim/play tennis)

I'd rather ---

12. (wait a few minutes/leave now)

I'd rather ---

13. (eat at home/go to a restaurant)

I'd prefer ---

14. (think about it for a while/decide now)

I'd rather ---

58.3 Complete the sentences using would you rather I ...

1. Are you going to cook the dinner or would you rather I cooked it?

2. Are you going to tell Ann what happened or would you rather ---?

3. Are you going to do the shopping or ---?

4. Are you going to answer the phone or ---?

58.4 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.

1. Shall I tell Ann the news?' 'No, I'd rather she didn't know.'

2. Do you want me to go now or would you rather I --- here?

3. Do you want to go out this evening or would you rather --- at home?

4. This is a private letter addressed to me. I'd rather you --- read it.

5. It's quite a nice house but I'd rather it --- a bit bigger.

6. Do you mind if I turn on the radio?' 'I'd rather you --- I'm trying to study.'

@p118

UNIT 59. Preposition (in/for/about etc.) + ~ing

A. If a preposition (in/for/about etc.) is followed by a verb, the verb ends in ~ing. For example:

Are you interested in working for us?

I'm not very good at learning languages.

She must be fed up with studying.

What are the advantages of having a car?

This knife is only for cutting bread.

How about playing tennis tomorrow?

I bought a new bicycle instead of going away on holiday.

Carol went to work in spite of feeling ill.

You can also say 'interested in somebody (do)ing .....', fed up with you (do)ing...' etc.:

* I'm fed up with you telling me what to do.

B. Note the use of the following prepositions + ~ing:

before ~ing and after ~ing:

* Before going out, I phoned Sarah. (not 'Before to go out')

* What did you do after leaving school?

You can also say 'Before I went out ...' and '... after you left school'.

by ~ing (to say bow something happens):

* The burglars got into the house by breaking a window and climbing in.

* You can improve your English by reading more.

* She made herself ill by not eating properly.

without ~ing:

* I ran ten kilometer without stopping.

* They climbed through the window without anybody seeing them. (or ... without being seen.)

* She needs to work without people disturbing her. (or ... without being disturbed.)

* It's nice to go on holiday without having to worry about money.

C. To ~ing

To is often part of the infinitive (to do/to see etc.):

* We decided to go out.

* Would you like to play tennis?

But to is also a preposition (like in/for/about/from etc.). For example:

* We drove from London to Edinburgh.

* I prefer tea to coffee.

* Are you looking forward to the weekend?

If a preposition is followed by a verb, the verb ends in ~ing; (in doing/about going etc.- see Section A). So, when to is a preposition and it is followed by a verb, you must say to ~ing:

* I prefer driving to travelling by train. (not 'to travel')

* Are you looking forward to seeing Ann again? (not 'looking forward to see')

For be/get used to ~ing, see Unit 60.

@p119

EXERCISES

59.1 Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the sentence(s) in brackets.

1. (Why is it useful to have a car?)

What are the advantages of _having a car_?

2. (I don't intend to lend you any money.)

I have no intention of ---

3. (Helen has a good memory for names.)

Helen is good at ---

4. (Mark won't pass the exam. He has no chance.)

Mark has no chance of ---

5. (Did you get into trouble because you were late?)

Did you get into trouble for ---

6. (We didn't eat at home. We went to a restaurant instead.)

Instead of ---

7. (Tom thinks that working is better than doing nothing.)

Tom prefers working to ---

8. (They got married. They didn't tell any of their friends.)

They got married without ---

9. (Our team played well but we lost the game.)

Our team lost the game in spite of ---

59.2 Complete the sentences using by ~ing. Use one of the following (with the verb in the correct form): borrow too much money break a window drive too fast put some posters up on the walls stand on a chair turn a key

1. The burglars got into the house _by breaking a window._

2. I was able to reach the top shelf ---

3. You start the engine of a car ---

4. Kevin got himself into financial difficulty ---

5. You can put people's lives in danger ---

6. We made the room look nicer ---

59.3 Complete the sentences with a suitable word. Use only one word each time.

1. I ran ten kilometers without _stopping._

2. He left the hotel without --- his bill.

3. It's a nice morning. How about --- for a walk?

4. I was surprised that she left without --- goodbye to anyone.

5. Before --- to bed, I like to have a hot drink.

6. We were able to translate the letter into English without --- a dictionary.

7. It was a very long journey. I was very tired after --- on a train for 36 hours.

8. I was annoyed because the decision was made without anybody --- me.

9. After --- the same job for ten years, I felt I needed a change.

59.4 For each, situation write a sentence with I'm (not) looking forward to.

1. You are going on holiday next week. How do you feel about this?

_I'm looking forward to going on holiday._

2. Diane is a good friend of yours and she is coming to visit you soon. So you will see her again soon. How do you feel about this?

I'm ---

3. You are going to the dentist tomorrow. You don't like visits to the dentist. How do you feet about this?

I'm not ---

4. Carol is a student at school. She hates it but she is leaving school next summer. How does she feel about this? ---

5. You've arranged to play tennis tomorrow. You like tennis. How do you feel about this? ---

@p120

UNIT 60. Be/get used to something (I'm used to ...)

A. Study this example situation:

Jane is American but she has lived in Britain for three years. When she first drove a car in Britain, she found it very difficult because she had to drive on the left instead of on the right. Driving on the left was strange and difficult for her because:

She wasn't used to it.

She wasn't used to driving on the left.

But after a lot of practice, driving on the left became less strange. So:

She got used to driving on the left.

Now after three years, it's no problem for Jane:

She is used to driving on the left.

I'm used to something = it is not new or strange for me:

* Frank lives alone. He doesn't mind this because he has lived alone for 15 years. It is not strange for him. He is used to it. He is used to living alone.

* I bought some new shoes. They felt a bit strange at first because I wasn't used to them.

* Our new flat is on a very busy street. I expect we'll get used to the noise, but at the moment it's very disturbing.

* Diane has a new job. She has to get up much earlier now than before - at 6.30. She finds this difficult because she isn't used to getting up so early.

* Brenda's husband is often away from home. She doesn't mind this. She is used to him being away.

B. After be/get used you cannot use the infinitive.(to do/to drive etc.). We say:

* She is used to driving on the left. (not 'she is used to drive')

When we say 'I am used to...', 'to' is a preposition, not a part of the infinitive (see Unit 59C). So we say:

* Frank is used to living alone. (not 'Frank is used to live')

* Jane had to get used to driving on the left. (not 'get used to drive')

C. Do not confuse I am used to doing (be/get used to) and I used to do. They are different in structure and meaning.

I am used to (doing) something = something isn't strange or new for me:

* I am used to the weather in this country.

* I am used to driving on the left because I've lived in Britain for a long time.

I used to do something = I did something regularly in the past but no longer do it (see Unit 18). You can use this structure only for the past, not for the present. The structure is 'I used to do' (not 'I am used to do'):

* I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike.

* We used to live in a small village, but now we live in London.

@p121

EXERCISES

60.1 Read the situations and complete the sentences. Use (be/get) used to as in the example.

1. Jane is American. She came to Britain and at first she found driving on the left difficult.

When she arrived in Britain, she _wasn't used to driving_ on the left, but she soon _got used to_ it. Now she has no problems. She _is used to driving_ on the left.

2. Juan is Spanish and came to live in England. In Spain he always had dinner late in the evening, but in England dinner was at 6 o'clock. This was very early for him. When Juan first came to England, he --- dinner so early, but after some time he --- it. Now he finds it quite normal. He --- at six o'clock.

3. Julia is a nurse. A year ago she started working nights. At first she found it hard. At first Julia didn't like it. She --- nights and it took her a few months to --- it. Now, after a year, she's quite happy. She --- nights.

60.2 What do you say in these situations? Use I'm (not) used to... .

1. You live alone. You don't mind this. You have always lived alone.

FRIEND: Do you get a bit lonely sometimes? You: No, I'm used to living alone.

2. You steep on the floor. You don't mind this. You have always slept on the floor.

FRIEND: Wouldn't you prefer to sleep in a bed? You: No, I ---


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