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5. …a business competitor.

6. …an air of dignity and importance to the interview.

7. … a diary.

8. …to analyze the problems and consider all the facts.

9. …place himself in the subject’s position.

10. …waiters, maids, private detectives, mail carriers, cab drivers, gro"

cery clerks

10) Find the appropriate words given below to the following defini"

tion:

1. one skilled in a particular craft

2. document or letter establishing the identity, authority or the right

to confidence or accreditation of the bearer

3. meeting between a writer or reporter and a person from whom

information is sought

4. something submitted to a court or judicial officer as evidence

5. one who gives or provide information

6. a number of people living in the same locality as a district or town,

and under the same government

7. account preserved in writing or other permanent form; known

fact about activity or achievement; history of criminal activity

8. one who holds an office or position; authorized to carry out some

specific function

9. book for keeping daily record of events, especially of the writer’s

personal experience and observation

10. to give evidence under oath in a court of law

11. idle talk or rumour, often malicious, especially about the personal

affairs of other people

12. good reputation, credit or position

13. that which one is morally or legally bound to do; obligation

14. expression of dissatisfaction

15. one who competes

16. information acquired through experience, study or observation;

specific information or facts concurring a given matter

17. better position, superiority; useful or beneficial circumstance,

factor or event.

1. duty

2. advantage

3. officials

4. diary

5. artisan

6. exhibits

7. informant

8. interview

9. competitor

10. records

11. credentials

12. gossip

13. knowledge

14. community

15. complaint

Unit 35 What Makes an Investigator?

228 229

Unit 36

The Interview

When the investigator first meets his subject, he should not arm

himself immediately with notebook and pencil and start taking down

information given by the subject. The investigator should first introF

duce himself by producing his credentials, at the same time explainF

ing the reason for the visit. He should wait until the witness has finF

ished his story. Then the investigator should state that he wishes to set

down all the witness has related in the form of a statement. The inF

vestigator will then prepare the statement properly, and after it is comF

pleted, ask the witness to sign it.

The investigator acting as interviewer should train himself to judge

quickly the other person and his traits, at the same time being alert

to his own traits, whims and prejudices. The investigator should avoid

being offensive in any way to a witness. The investigator should regard

himself as a party to the interview, which is really a conversation beF

tween two persons, and in thinking of himself in that way, the investiF

gator should regard objectively everything about the witness. No inF

vestigator should ever promise a witness any reward or compensation

for his testimony.

People are often sensitive about their personal lives. Questions as



to their prior or current marital life, criminal backgrounds, poverty,

or contagious diseases may seem to them unwarranted intrusions. The

confidence of the witness should be gained, and he should be conF

vinced that the investigator is not motivated by wanton curiosity but

should be regarded as a doctor, a clergyman, or a lawyer when perF

sonal information is related.

In some cases a witness will be questioned in a place of business

or in a home, but the investigator should always take every effort to

interview the witness alone.

Events ordinarily meriting the attention of an investigator are high

lights in the life of the witness, who will talk excitedly and continualF

ly to all and sundry who will listen to what he has to say about an event

he has just observed. That is why time is of such importance in visitF

ing witnesses in certain types of case.

When an investigator is about to interview a witness who is an

unknown quantity and whose testimony may be very material, it is

often wise to learn something about the person to be interviewed beF

fore the contact is actually made. The potential witness should be

unaware of this, of course. The investigator should be circumspect in

making inquiry about a potential witness so that there is no possibilF

ity of reflection being cast on his character.

Sometimes it is wise for the investigator to fortify himself with

documentary information about a witness he is to interview. This may

prove of value if he wants to determine the veracity of the witness durF

ing an interview. The investigator should never allow himself to look

bored or indifferent during an interview. The investigator should also

avoid relative conclusions based on erroneous observations by the

witness. The investigator should also have a general knowledge of

mental abnormalities so as to differentiate between an insane person

and a psychopathic witness. It is always advisable that two investigaF

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tors be present when an abnormal person is interviewed, especially

when hysteria is present.

The investigator should train himself to be a good listener even

though his patience at times becomes sorely tried. The investigator

should be careful to distinguish irrelevant rambling from heartfelt

emotion before making any attempt to curb the talkative witness.

Previous emphasis has been placed on the value of privacy, when

conducting an interview. Physical setting in general is important, and

distracting noises such as telephone bells, interruptions by other perF

sons should be kept at a minimum during the course of an interview.

The witness should have the undivided attention of the investigator if

the latter is to attain the undivided confidence of the witness.

The five «W’s» should always be in the mind of an investigator

during the course of an interview. They are: «Who did, What, When,

Where and Why?»

Notes

1. to arm oneself – озброїтись

2. to produce one’s credentials – показати свої документи

3. traits – особливоcті

4. whims – примха

5. prejudices – упередження

6. to be offensive – бути агресивним

The Interview

230 231

7. marital life – подружнє життя

8. contagious disease – інфекційна хвороба

9. intrusions – необґрунтоване втручання в особисте життя

10. wanton curiosity – своєвільна зацікавленість, цікавість

11. all and sundry – усе і усе, усе без винятків

12. to circumspect – бути обережним, обачливим

13. to look bored – виглядати стомленим

14. erroneous observation – хибний погляд, спостереження

15. an insane person – божевільний

16. a psychopathic witness – психопат

17. irrelevant rambling – недоречна прогулянка

18. to curb the talkative witness – зупинити балакучого свідка

Exercises

1)Answer the following questions:

1. What is the first step of the investigator when he meets his subject?

2. What quality should the investigator avoid to a witness?

3. In what places can witnesses be questioned?

4. Why is time of such importance in visiting witnesses in certain

types of case?

5. Why is it often wise to learn something about the person to be inF

terviewed before the contact is actually made?

6. With what is it wise to fortify himself about witness the investigaF

tor is to interview?

7. How should the investigator allow himself to look during an inF

terview?

8. What should he avoid?

9. When is it always advisable that two investigators be present?

10. What qualities should an investigator possess when the talkative

witness is interviewed?

11. What is the most important in conducting an interview?

12. What five «w’s» should always be in the mind of an investigator

during the course of an interview?

13. How should the confidence of the witness be gained?

14. Why should the investigator make inquiry about a potential witness?

2) Ask questions to get the following answers:

1. The investigator should first introduce himself by producing his

credentials, at the same time explaining the reason for the visit.

2. When the witness’s story is completed, the investigator asks him

to sign it.

3. The investigator should avoid being offensive in any way to a witF

ness.

4. The interview is really a conversation between two persons.

5. No investigator should ever promise a witness any reward or comF

pensation for his testimony.

6. The confidence of the witness should be gained.

7. The investigator should always take every effort to interview the

witness alone.

8. The witness talks excitedly about an event he has just observed.

9. The investigator should make inquiry about a potential witness.

10. The investigator should avoid relative conclusions based on erroF

neous observations by the witness.

11. The witness should have the undivided attention of the investigator.

3) Match the words and expressions from the left and the right col"

umns according to the meaning:

I I

1. subject 1. допит

2. credentials 2. упередження

3. statement 3. компенсація

4. interview 4. духовна особа

5. traits 5. перерва

6. prejudice 6. документи

7. reward 7. приватність

8. compensation 8. терпіння

9. confidence 9. суб’єкт

10. clergyman 10. нагорода

11. hysteria 11. довіра

12. patience 12. затвердження

13. privacy 13. істерія

14. interruption 14. особливості

II II

1. to arm himself 1. отримати довіру

2. to introduce himself 2. заслуговувати на увагу

3. to be alert 3. не розумітися

4. to gain the confidence 4. захистити себе

Unit 36 The Interview

232 233

2. Being as an interviewer the investigator should train himself to

judge the other person and his traits.

3. The investigator has to avoid being offensive in any way to a witF

ness.

4. No investigator should ever promise a witness any reward or comF

pensation for his testimony.

5. Questions as to the prior or current marital life, criminal backF

grounds, poverty or contagious diseases of the witnesses may seen

to them unwarranted intrusions.

6. The confidence of the witness should be gained.

7. The witness should be convinced that the investigator should be

regarded as a doctor, a clergyman or a lawyer.

8. The investigator must take every effort to interview the witness

alone.

9. All that the witness has to say about an event he has just observed

should merit the attention of an investigator.

10. When an investigator is about to interview a witness who is an

unknown quantity and whose testimony may be very material it

is often wise to learn something about the person to be interviewed

before the contact is actually made.

11. Sometimes it is wise for the investigator to fortify himself with

documentary information about a witness he is to interview.

12. The witness should have the undivided attention of the investigaF

tor if the latter is to attain the undivided confidence of the witness.

5) Finish the sentences by the suitable parts given below. Translate

these sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The first step of the investigator when he first meets the witness

is…

2. The investigator should train himself to judge quickly…

3. The investigator should avoid being offensive in any way to a witF

ness, he must also avoid…..

4. Sometimes the events meriting the attention of an investigator

are…

5. The іnvestigator should fortify himself with….

6. To differentiate between an insane person and a psychopathic

witness the investigator should…

7. When an abnormal person is interviewed it is advisable that… be

careful…

5. to merit the attention 5. розпізнати

6. to observe the events 6. озброїтися

7. to be unaware 7. бути напоготові

8. to make an inquiry 8. виглядати змореним

9. to fortify himself with 9. зупинити свідка

10. to look bored 10. представитися

11. to distinguish 11. проводити допит

12. to curb the witness 12. допитувати

13. to conduct an interview 13. спостерігати події

III III

1. prior marital life 1. необґрунтоване втручання

в особисте життя

2. criminal back grounds 2. достовірність свідка

3. contagious diseases 3. хибне спостереження

4. unwarranted intrusions 4. божевільний

5. wanton curiosity 5. свідок-психопат

6. material testimony 6. цінність приватності

7. veracity of the witness 7. попереднє подружнє

життя

8. erroneous observations 8. сердечні емоції

9. mental abnormalities 9. інфекційна хвороба

10. insane person 10. неподдільна увага

(довіра)

11. psychopathic witness 11. кримінальне минуле

12. amoral person 12. балакучий свідок

13. irrelevant rambling 13. ненормальна людина

14. heartfelt emotion 14. розумові відхилення

15. talkative witness 15. речові докази

16. value of privacy 16. своєвільна

зацікавленність

17. undivided attention

(confidence)

17. недоречна прогулянка

4) Translate the following sentences, paying attention to the modal

verbs and their equivalents:

1. During his first meeting with the subject, the investigator should

introduce himself by producing his credentials and explaining the

reason for the visit.

Unit 36 The Interview

234 235

1. ... two investigators be present, especially when hysteria is present

2. ... relative conclusions based on erroneous observations by the

witness

3. … the introducing himself and explaining the reason for his visit

4. ... to distinguish irrelevant rambling from heartfelt emotion

5. ... documentary information about a witness he is to interview

6. ... the other persons and his traits at the same time to be alert to

his own traits, whims and prejudices

7. ... to have a general knowledge of mental abnormalities

8. ... high lights in the life of the witness

3)Complete the following sentences by translating into English the

words and expressions in brackets:

1. At the time of explaining the reason of his visit the investigator

(повинен показати свої документи).

2. The investigator should be patient with his witness and after the

interview is completed (попросити свідка підписати його

свідчення).

3. The investigator should avoid being offensive in any way to a witF

ness and no investigator should ever (обіцяти свідку якуFнебудь

нагороду або компенсацію за його свідчення).

4. The questions as to their prior or current marital life (криміF

нальне минуле, бідність, інфекційна хвороба) may seem to

them (необґрунтованим втручанням в особисте життя).

5. The main step in the questioning the witness is (завоювати

довіру свідка).

6. The attention of the investigator is very important for the witness

when (він хоче розповісти про події, які він тільки що спосF

терігав).

7. When an investigator is about to interview a witness (він повинен

виявити усе можливе про особу, яку він збирається допиF

тувати).

8. When an abnormal person is interviewed (бажано, щоб двоє

слідчих були присутні при допиті).

9. The investigator should be (добрим слухачем і мати терпіння

вислухати балакучу людину).

10. When conducting an interview (велике значення має придіF

лятися приватності розмови).

7) Find the appropriate words given below to the following definition:

1. Document of letter establishing the identity, authority or the right

to confidence or accreditation of the bearer.

2. Distinguishing aspect or quality, as of character: bravery, honesF

ty and other noble traits.

3. Information or past circumstances that help to explain some latF

er event or situation.

4. Illegal entering into or seizing of another’s property.

5. One ordained as a priest; member of clergy.

6. Opinion or judgment, especially an unfavorable one, formed beF

forehand or without sufficient knowledge or just grounds.

7. Examining carefully all the circumstances that may affect an acF

tion or a decision.

8. Truthfulness, honesty, accuracy, correctness, that which is true,

truth.

9. Quality, state or fact of being patient or the ability to be patient.

10. Firm trust or reliance: feeling of certainty; assurance.

11. Right to be free from interference with one’s private affairs, state

or condition of being private or isolated.

12. Not sane, mentally deranged, extremely foolish, senseless.

1. background

2. clergyman

3. to circumspect

4. trail

5. patience

6. insane

7. credentials

8. privacy

9. prejudices

10. intrusion

11. confidence

12. veracity

Unit 36 The Interview

236 237

Unit 37

The art of detection

Alphonse Bertillon created the first practical identification sysF

tem by the use of the portrait parley which consists of a clear and preF

cise method of describing a person and also uses photography. The

theory behind this system is based on the fact that the human skeleF

ton is unchangeable after the twentieth year and the fact that it is imF

possible to find two human beings with identical bone structure. ExF

act instrumental measurements of the ears, head, feet, fingers, toes,

arms and nose are made. Coupled with those are other characterisF

tics such as color of eyes and hair, scars, height, tattoos, posture, and

individual peculiarities.

The ears, specifically, are examined for many characteristics the

basic patterns of which remain unchanged from birth until death.

Although the portrait parley system is still used in some EuropeF

an cities, in many places it has given way to the fingerprint system of

identification. Although fingerprinting was not adopted until 1901 by

Scotland Yard, which was the first modern police agency to use this

means of identification, there is evidence that even before Christ the

Chinese used fingerprints as seals for personal identification. The Tang

dynasty, which flourished in China over one thousand years ago, used

a fingerprint system of identification based on loops and whorls,

which is the basis of our present system used almost universally.

It is difficult to estimate how many people in the United State,

now living, have been fingerprinted. When one realizes that, in addiF

tion to the millions of criminals whose fingerprints are on records,

government employees, members of the armed forces, defense and

security workers, aliens, various state and municipal employees and

others must also be fingerprinted, an idea may be formed of this treF

mendous source of information. Actually, more than 100 million finF

gerprints are on file with the Federal Bureau of Investigation. This

figure includes persons in foreign countries and many now dead.

Every state has some form of central State Identification Bureau

generally related to the State Police. The respective state headquarF

ters receive prints from the various police agencies in their jurisdicF

tion. This central agency has competent experts and facilities for liftF

ing, photographing, or developing latent fingerprints. Indexes of finF

gerprints, names, aliases, photographs and methods of crime are usuF

ally kept.

The allFembracing and largest agency containing fingerprint

records, however, is the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the UnitF

ed States Department of Justice. All law enforcement agencies in the

land, as well as the military, governmental, and municipal authorities

ordinarily send to this Bureau copies of each set of fingerprints takF

en. An investigator seeking to locate a missing person should never

overlook writing to the Director of the Federal Bureau of InvestigaF

tion, Washington, D.C., to request a fingerprint record. The return

may be great for the small amount of time expended in writing. The

investigator should not, however, restrict his efforts to the Bureau in

Washington. If he is conducting an intensive investigation, he should

never fail to check with the local authorities, because the subject might

have been arrested for a misdemeanor or nominal offense, one not

necessitating the taking of fingerprints. A record of the arrest, howF

ever, would be present locally. In certain states, if a defendant is tried

and acquitted, he may request the return of his fingerprints. Even in

states where this procedure is permitted, however, the local police

archives will have a complete record of the arrest and the facts leadF

ing up to it, all of which may prove the assistance to the investigator.

Notes

1. portrait parley – словісне зображення

2. instrumental measurements – інструментальне зображення

3. individual peculiarities – окремі особливості

4. seal – підпис

5. looks and whorls – петлі та кругляки

6. security workers – співробітники служби безпеки

7. aliens – іноземці

8. headquarter – штабFквартира

9. aliases– призвісько, кличка

10. law enforcement agency – правоохоронні органи

11. a missing person – зникла людина

12. record of arrest – запис арешту

13. to try a defendant – зaсуджувати винного

14. to acquit – виправдовувати

The art of detection

238 239

Exercises

1) Translate given expressions into Ukrainian:

the first practical identification system; the portrait parley; identiF

cal bone structure; the fingerprint system of identification; exact instruF

mental measurements; system based on loops and whorls; source of

information; The Federal Bureau of Investigation; state headquarters;

competent experts and facilities; latent fingerprints; law enforcement

agency; municipal authority; to take a set of fingerprints to locate; a

missing person; to conduct an intensive investigation; a nominal ofF

fense; to try a defendant; to acquit a defendant; the local police archives.

2) Give Ukrainian equivalents to all the expressions with the word

«Fingerprint»:

fingers; the fingerprint system of identification; to adopt fingerF

printing; to use fingerprints as seals; to be fingerprinted; to receive

prints; latent fingerprints; indexes of fingerprints; fingerprint records;

to take the set of fingerprints; to request a fingerprint record.

3) Answer the following questions:

1. Who created the first practical identification system by the use of

the portrait parley?

2. What fact is the theory of this system based on?

3. What way has the portrait parley system given way to?

4. Who was the first to use fingerprinting?

5. Who used the fingerprints as seals for personal identification?

6. How many people in the United States have been fingerprinted?

7. How many fingerprints are on file with the Federal Bureau of

Investigation?

8. What Bureau does every state have?

9. What is the largest agency containing fingerprint records?

10. What is the first task of the investigator seeking to locate a missF

ing person?

4) Ask questions to get the following answers:

1. Identification system by the use of the portrait parley consists of

a clear and precise method of describing a person and also uses

photography.

2. The theory of this system is based on the fact that the human skelF

eton is unchangeable after the twentieth year.

3. The portrait parley system has given way to the fingerprint sysF

tem of identification.

4. The first modern police agency Scotland Yard adopted fingerF

printing in 1901.

5. There is evidence that even before Christ the Chinese used finF

gerprints as seals for personal identification.

6. Various authorities in the United States estimated that nearly 70

million persons now have been living fingerprinted.

7. Every state has some form of central state Identification Bureau

generally related to the State Police.

8. The respective state headquarters receive prints from the various

police agencies in their jurisdiction.

9. The Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States DepartF

ment of Justice is the allFembracing and largest agency containF

ing fingerprint records.

10. In certain states, if a defendant is tried and acquitted, he may reF

quest the return of his fingerprint.

5) Match the words and expressions from the left and the right col"

umns according to the meaning:

I I

1. parley 1. шрами

2. measurements 2. постава

3. ears 3. прізвисько

4. toes 4. описування

5. scars 5. підпис

6. height 6. пальці на ногах

7. posture 7. династія

8. patterns 8. розміри

9. seals 9. запис

10. dynasty 10. штаб-квартира

11. records 11. вуха

12. headquarters 12. зразки

13. aliases 13. зріст

II II

1. the portrait parley 1. поліцейський відділок

2. human beings 2. засоби ідентифікації

Unit 37 The art of detection

240 241

6) Finish the sentences by the suitable parts given below. Translate

these sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The first practical identification system by the use of the portrait

parley…

2. The identification system is based on the fact that the human skelF

eton is unchangeable and it is impossible…

3. In many European cities the portrait parley system has given way

to…

4. The first modern police agency which used fingerprinting was…

5. In addition to the millions of criminals whose fingerprints are on

records more than 100 millions fingerprints…

6. In seeking the location of a mіssing person the investigator should

write to the Federal Bureau of Investigation…

1. ... are on file with the Federal Bureau of Investigation

2. ... Scotland Yard

3. …to request a fingerprint record

4. …was created by Alphonse Bertillon

5. … the fingerprint system of identification

6. …to find two human beings with identical bone structure

7) Find the sentences with modal verbs and their equivalents in the

text and translate these sentences into Ukrainian

8) Find the appropriate words given below to the following definition:

1. impression of the markings on the inner surface of the tip of a finF

ger or thumb, esp. such an impression made with ink and used

for purposes of identification

2. something used to give evidence of or to establish one’s identity;

act process of identifying: state of being identified

3. verbal picture or description, esp. of a person

4. set of habitual or representative actions or characteristics: style or form

5. act or fact of being born

6. permanent cessation of all vital functions: end of life; state or conF

dition of being dead

7. metropolitan police of London, esp. branch engaged in crime deF

tection; its headquarters: an area of White Hall in which its origF

inal headquarters were located, where, during the Middle Ages,

kings of Scotland stayed when visiting London


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