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Упражнение 15

Probably the most important use of electricity in the modern house is producing light. Little was known about the nature of electricity in the XIX century. At present scientific work is being done mostly by large groups of researchers. The computer performing addition, two numbers to be added come from the memory. The problem of new generators is likely to be one of the most essential. The Soviet Union is known to have put into operation the first atomic station in 1954. Without experimenting there can be no progress in science. Is this device more efficient than the other one? We all know of their designing a new type of device. What specialities do the students master in this university? Where else can interactive picture information systems be used? With the help of radioactive elements we are able to measure the thickness of various materials. You may take either this device or that one. Masers are up to 1.000 times more sensitive than any other type of amplifiers. When heated, a magnet lost part of its magnetism. After graduating from Petersburg University A.S. Popov remained there as a post-graduate at the Physics Department. When did the first calculating machine appear? For him to take this decision was not easy. For many centuries men were interested in obtaining new sources of energy. Why will to translate this scientific article be difficult? We must set the time for the beginning of the experiment. She has been to the theatre this month. Siberia has now been transformed into a big construction site. People should be able to use computers as problem-solving devices. Her friend said that that letter was full of interesting news and it had reached him two days before. The basic idea of a computer is that we can make the ma­chine do what we want by inputting signals that turn certain switches on and turn others off, or magnetize or do not magne­tize the cores. When the worker was applying the new method of work he got better results. The problem was that we didn’t know how to keep the results of the experiment. The students who are listening to the taped lesson study at the evening faculty. More than one hundred years have passed since the day when A.S.Popov demontsrated his radio receiver. Franklin was the first who developed a new theory of electricity. Since many elements of the computer can be working on different portions of the same task, the work may be done faster. If he had not used this formula, he would not have made this mistake. I'll solve this equation if you help me. If you want my advice, you should find another supplier. It was the study of natural phenomena that made it possible to formulate various laws. It was in the laboratory that we found him. Integrated electronics is a field so new and so fast changing that many interested people have difficulty keeping up with its day-to-day developments.



Упражнение 16

How many particles does atoms consist of? Who was this design to be worked out by? The field of laser applications is extending very rapidly, isn't it? A new type of computing equipment is being produced at our plant. Being cooled water turns into ice. Both my parents are from Ryazan. He's either Italian or Spanish. We use the term data processing to include the resources applied for processing of information. Whose theory of relativity is often referred to by a great number of researchers? Electronics is a young science and it belongs to the twentieth century. Processing is a series of operations converting inputs into outputs. What does the speed of the signal response depend on? Higher speeds are one of the basic features of modern technical progress. Resources required for accom­plishing the processing of data are called data processing sys­tem. This is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens. Is it difficult for him to solve this problem by himself? Having been discovered many years ago this metal found a wide application in industry only last year. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man's hands. There appeared a new branch of science — microelectronics. What did the transistor invented by American scientists W. Shockly, J. Bardeen and W. Brattain in 1948 replace? Solving such problems helped them greatly. When will individuals be able to communicate with each other by seeing the same images displayed on their individual television screens? The results of the experiments should be checked up very carefully. The apparatus used in our research has been described recently. I have read this book three times. But for electricity little could be done in a modern research laboratory. We were sure that we should finish our work in time. Some people believe that learning a foreign language is just a matter of memorizing words. The engineers were attaching the wires to the devices when I came in. One more advantage of microelectronics is that smaller de­vices consume less power. That it is possible to convert heat to energy and energy back to heat can be demonstrated in a number of ways. Computers are machines which are able to solve complex mathematical problems. He may have got the article he needed. There is a computting centre at the Institute where the students are taught to work with computers. The man spoke as though he were an expert on this subject. If you had applied your theoretical knowledge to your practical work, you would have got a different result. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. Should you require any further information, don't hesitate to contact me. They climbed higher that they might get a better view. Although a computer can do many things, it cannot think, can’t it? It was in the Soviet Union that the first atom-driven ice-breaker "Lenin" was made. It was the energy and persistence of A.G. Bell which made the telephone a practical instrument.

Упражнение 17

Can your students read such articles without a dictionary? The control sys­tem had to be provided with the most perfect automatic devices. Being used in measuring the diffusion of metal isotopes gave much more accurate data. Is the pace of technological development quickening? Is Very Large-Scale Integration (VLSI) revolution nearing its end? Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. Radio employs electrical energy to transmit sounds, images and signals. Reaching the Earth the energy sent from the Sun is either absorbed or reflected. Now scientists may send any order to a radio-controlled rocket. Technical progress is now impossible without high-quality materials. Which device is expected to be available later ? The apparatus to be assembled is very complicated and expensive. The generator charges the batteries. The Institute has all the necessary facilities for teaching. In what fields of science and technology are the methods of radio engineering applied? The laboratory houses many electronic devices. The engineer wanted to be sent to the conference. The engineer had to improve the accuracy of this machine-tool, didn’t he? have to 2 Who did the idea of using stimulated emission of radiation for amplification of very short waves come from? The results received changed with material used. We expected the article to be published next month. To integrate large numbers of circuit elements into a small chip, transistors must be reduced in size. You must improve the device to make the experiment They have made a new experiment this week. What has a new interactive electronic system, videotex developed for? He would work on his design for hours. Excuse my troubling you. The engineer said they would carry out an experiment with the new transistor device. My scientific adviser said to me that I would have to go to Moscow to take part in the conference. It goes without saying that automation in a particular factory or industry reduces the amount of labour needed. (it goes without sayingсамо собой разумеется) It has been found that the properties of the human eye can be stimulated technologically and used in digital television. We will have been discussing this matter for fifteen minutes by the time he appears in the conference hall. The apparatus will be working when you come. The only thing that can be depended upon is that change will occur. Since that time Maxwell wrote a great number of works which were the results of his experiments and calculations. There are some general guides that you will find helpful for your experiment. The instrument which will be used must make precise measurements. If we put water into a tube, it would take the shape of the tube, wouldn’t it? If you had applied your theoretical knowledge to your practical work, you would have got a different result. It is necessary that you should help him. It is required that those devices be used in solving this problem. The potential of integrated circuits is so wide that in addition to replacing similar discrete component circuits they are responsible for creating a completely new technology of circuit design.

Упражнение 18

This equipment can work with high accuracy. Is he going to do the work himself? Who did all the measurements have to be analysed by? This method of switching is sure to be cheaper. This town is as large as that one. We know of Popov’s having made the first radio set in the world. A large library with reading halls is at the disposal of the students. Are all the details of the plan supposed to have been explained to you? We are not familiar with the theoretical grounds of the problem. We believe him to have changed his plans. One must always be careful when operating this machine. Sorry, but I must be off. Their wish is mastering the fundamentals of radio-engineering. hat was the reason for calling the conference? Lodygin was the first to invent the electric lamp, wasn’t he? Microelectronics has changed our lives beyond recognition, hasn’t it? Neither my friend nor I took part in this scientific conference. Soviet physicists saw in semiconductors the way of solving complicated engineering problems. In the event of the steamer being ordered to three ports of discharge, the rate of freight will be increased by one shilling per ton. Can this piece of metal be used in the experiment without being hammered into thin sheets. Have you or your family got a stereo system? In my opinion this result has not been proved by anybody. Without radio electronics there would be no cybernetics, cosmonautics and nuclear physics. Both of these managers are good. At the end of the year he will have been an assistant for three years. My brother saidthat these photographs were not very good. I'm afraid I'm rather late. I've known her since we were at the conference. He had been carrying out the experiment for twenty five minutes before his scientific supervisor came into the laboratory. Their task will be that they must prepare the necessary ingredients thoroughly. When we shall start a new series of experiments is not yet settled. Chemists must create the materials which don't exist in nature. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as scientific research may be carried out. The liquid takes up the shape of a vessel in which it is contained. Since the die sizes are smaller, the loss due to a die containing a material defect is smaller. If they had completed the research, the results would have been discussed at the conference. If we put water into a tube, it would take the shape of the tube, wouldn’t it? It is desirable that the engine should combine high efficiency and lightness. It is energy that is defined as ability to do work.

Упражнение 19

These engines are not so powerful as those motors. They hope to be sent to the conference. Who is attending a meeting now? He risks loosing all of his money. We needn't finish this meeting before 12 o'clock. Unless repaired, this part cannot be used in the radio set. We are to take into consideration all the advantages and disadvantages of this device for the future work. We think this work to be completed in a month. There seems to be something wrong with the account. Someone's knocking at the door. —That may be Nick. You may use these devices in your research work. You should work at your English as hard as possible. A great variety of substances are semi-conductors, germanium and silicon being the most important of them. Do you know this engineer? — Yes, I do. Electronics makes it possible to raise industrial automation to a higher level. I have to do this work now. I'm afraid I'm not free this week. What was the reason for calling the conference? Lodygin was the first to invent the electric lamp, wasn’t he? Microelectronics has changed our lives beyond recognition, hasn’t it? Neither my friend nor I took part in this scientific conference. Soviet physicists saw in semiconductors the way of solving complicated engineering problems. The agreement was signed ten years ago. The engineer insisted on experimenting as the best method to solve this problem, didn’t he? The lecturer spoke about the latest works in the sphere of radioelectronics. The workers increased the output of measuring instruments, new devices having been applied in all the shops of the plant. In the event of the vessel being delayed beyond the time provided for in the Charter Party, the chatterers have to pay the shipowners demurrage. When did the first generation of computers appear? All the preparations must have been completed long ago. This transistor would operate at 400°C. The student was asked how the strength of the radio wave had been measured. We often hear that the increasing flood of information will be one of the problems of the 21st century. When the scientist was carrying out research in the field of nuclear physics he came to Dubna to work there. Will they have left by the time we get there? The disadvantage of interpreted languages is that they are slow to execute, since the entire program must be translated one instruction at a time, each time the program is run. The equipment that is to be installed is very effective. The atom is a great force that must be used for the good of mankind. Small and reliable sensing and control devices are essential elements in the complex systems that have landed on the Moon and are exploring cosmic space. The Earth behaves as if it were a large magnet. Provided all of the requirements were met, the efficiency of the apparatus would be increased. Would it be better if this experiment were repeated? I wrote down the figures lest I should forget them. The various elements are designed so that all can be formed simultaneously by the same sequence of diffusions. The student was asked how the strength of the radio wave had been measured. We often hear that the increasing flood of information will be one of the problems of the 21st century. When the scientist was carrying out research in the field of nuclear physics he came to Dubna to work there. Will they have left by the time we get there? The disadvantage of interpreted languages is that they are slow to execute, since the entire program must be translated one instruction at a time, each time the program is run. The equipment that is to be installed is very effective. The atom is a great force that must be used for the good of mankind. Small and reliable sensing and control devices are essential elements in the complex systems that have landed on the Moon and are exploring cosmic space. The Earth behaves as if it were a large magnet. Provided all of the requirements were met, the efficiency of the apparatus would be increased. Would it be better if this experiment were repeated? I wrote down the figures lest I should forget them. The various elements are designed so that all can be formed simultaneously by the same sequence of diffusions.

Упражнение 20

Kurchatov's having devoted all his life to nuclear physics is known to everybody. This is the only way to do this. The real world is much too complicated to under­stand all at once. The investigations analysed resulted in an interesting discovery. Extensions are being made to the plant with a view to increasing the output. The idea of automation is one of the most important ideas for modern industry. Our professor doesn’t want us to use these data, does he? Radio and television continue to develop and to find wider application in science and industry. Radio waves are likelight waves. Special attention is given to such subjects as impulse technique, analogue and digital computers, theoretical foundations of electroengineering. The two sides appear to have solved this problem. The level of accuracy in measurement may differ very widely. The applying of lasers enables us to amplify electromagnetic waves. The chemist is expected to obtain a new substance. The idea to use this new substance is not new, is it? There are a lot of new large parks, gardens and museums in our capital. There are sport clubs at every college. These scientists continue working in this promising field of knowledge. These metals were the first to be used in industry, weren’t they?. Was the light projected onto a screen to recreate the original object? We stayed in London for nine days. We were informed about the report to be made by our professor. When improving the design the constructor made many calculations. Once prepared a program can be reused any number of times. All preparations being made, the delegation will start to the airport. Has telephone undergone any change? What have you listened to? Without the new instrument this experiment would not have been successful. Go on making the experiment. Thomas Alva Edison is known as one of the greatest inventors of his time. Where were the data required analysed? Provisions can and are being made in the architecture. Transistors contain no moving parts. Use a piece of copper wire to repair the instrument. We are to take special steps to reduce the weight of this mechanical part. We usually take measurements with great accuracy. What does the importance of cathode-ray tube lie in? Using the new method it is possible to increase accuracy and speed of spectral analysis. Advanced automation is impossible without computers. At present mathematics is the language of science and it becomes the stimulator of discoveries. He does obtain amplification (усиление) with this device. How many electron guns does a colour television have? How many seconds are there in a minute? I know of their being shown the new device. I know only one solution of this problem. While being checked the motor showed good performance. Your having worked at the plant helped you to master technical subjects, didn’t it? He prepared his report ahead of time. He showed me the articles from the latest magazine. Our old laboratory equipment was much worse than the new one. Architectures should provide adequate flexibility to support the growing trend to distributed systems. It will take a few more years to produce computers with a speed of over 10 billion operations a second. What kinds of communications media have been evolved over a time? What types of picture information systems have come into existence? Without radio we should hardly be able to observe artificial satellites and receive scientific information from space, shouldn’tit? He said to me that my sister had not finished her homework yet. The engineer informed that all the equipment was functioning normally. The professor said to the students that the next lecture would be on linear motion. We must say that the discovery of atomic energy is as important as the discovery of fire. When atoms or molecules are excited they emit electromagnetic waves. In fact, there is hardly any sphere of life where the atom may not find useful application. The method that will be used was developed in our laboratory. The laboratory is the place where experiments as well as scientific research may be carried out. Had they called at the laboratory yesterday, would they have found us there? Had I seen him yesterday, I should have told him about it. It is automation that improves working conditions, isn’t it? It is essential that he should inform us about the results of his research.

Упражнение 21

I'm afraid I must be going soon. We know of silver and copper being very good conductors of electricity. It becomes cold in autumn. Today, the technology is evolving at an ever-increasing speed. It is light in the room. Much attention is given to the development of radio engineering. Now holography is used for testing engineering ideas. Present-day telephones, television sets, satellites and microwave transmitters all rest upon a foundation of computers. Soviet students spend not less than one-third of their leisure time on self-education, learning foreign languages and reading books on history, literature and fine arts. The aim proved difficult to achieve. The management seem to be moving in the right direction. The application of this device in our experiment is certain to give better results. The computer can perform different mathematical operations. It's too good to be true. Are our products too expensive? The man introducing this famous scientist is the dean of our faculty. The students get practical skills in different laboratories equipped with modern apparatus and devices. These new data are obtained after our experiment. The experiment having been carried out, the students left the lab. The Soviet Union built high-capacity atomic power stations. The substances investigated showed quite interesting properties. This scientist was the first to develop the new process. He saw the workers repair the machine, didn’t he? New machine-language instructions may be defined by coding new microroutines. In this way an instruction set can be tailored to an application. What dream of mankind has come true? What has been described as "probably the biggest breakthrough in telecommunications"? It would be impossible to measure the temperature of Venus without a radio-telescope. She said that she would be ready in a few minutes. To understand what laser is one has to understand how light is generated. It is necessary to protect the human eye when laser beams are being used. The advantage of interpreted languages is that they can begin executing the program immediately instead of having to wait for all of the source code to be compiled. Whether the spaceship will be able to leave the earth depends upon the speed of the ship. Persons who have graduated from a university or college receive the degree of a certificated specialist. The work that must be done is of great importance for our work. Willthe workers who are building this house have finished their work by September? Since the devices are smaller, the number of devices per wafer is greater. Had I time, I should analyze the results of the experiment. Should you find them, let me know at once. It is said that his theory produced revolution in science. It is the computer that makes a machine a robot.

Упражнение 22

They are considered to carry out their research in time. The size requirements are becoming increasingly severe. Which ofthe researchers took great interest in improving the properties of the sub­stance. To carry out this research work requires special knowledge. We know of Yoffe's having contributed much to the research of transistors. What does the report deal with? According to the time-table, the train gets in at half past eight. At present our engineers are to develop the most advanced methods of production. Computer science is a broad discipline, covering logic design, hardware, the theory of computation, numerical analysis, programming and computer application. I apologize for misunderstanding. I need some more information on this subject. Lasers are now used for many scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Our planet has powerful sources of energy. Our plant is to increase its output. It was easy for our mechanic to repair this device. My friend left for Moscow yesterday. The results of this research were published long ago. These devices were the first to be tested in our laboratory. We had to repeat the experiment. An advantage of the fifth generation will be the ability of people without knowledge of programming to use computer terminals. Most of the new languages will be aimed at making it easier to perform specialized kinds of processing. The twentieth century has seen the emergence of the information age. This theory has been used for analysing the experimental data. Without computers it would be possible to perform the enormous number of calculations. The students said that they hadn’t written the program yet. The lecturer said that television played an important role in our life. The solution of the problem requires that all the experimental data obtained be exact. He understood the text after he had read it again. When did scientists had to return to the use of short waves in order to solve a problem that came up? It is hardly possible to name a sphere of science, engineering or national economy where radioengineering equipment is not used. It is often said that one should use the language of those to whom one is speaking. The electrons move round the nucleus as if they were the planets of the solar system moving round the Sun. If I were in his place, I should refuse. If you had seen him, you wouldn't have recognized him. We sent all the documents by air mail so that they should be received before the arrival of the cargo. It is evident that in the near future centralized Archives will be set up allowing us to display any required information on a home TV screen. It is this process of recognizing signals that is known as digitization. A transistor can be made by adding a third doped region to a diode so that, for example, а p-type region is said to be sandwiched between two n-type regions.


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